On this week's Reel Rebel, Stephen talks about the basics for using your camera's zoom for shooting video - When it's appropriate to use zooming, tips for how best to use it, understanding the two types of zooms available on cameras (optical zoom vs. digital zoom), and how to ensure the best quality possible when shooting video with zoom.
When to Use Your Camera's Zoom for Videography
For the most part, zooming should often be avoided but there are some instances where you may want to leverage your camera's zoom. There are two distinct instances when you should make use of your camera zoom:
- When you can't get close to your subject.
- When you shouldn't get close to your subject.
While the first situation is rather easy to recognize, it is very important to know how to identify the second one. Filming a big speech or conference may naturally require you to be at a distance and, while capturing shots of a dangerous animal doesn't necessarily require a zoom, don't come crying to us if that bear doesn't appreciate having a camera in its face.
Another well known fact is that people tend to behave differently when they know they are being filmed. This can make the zoom function very helpful if you're trying to capture candid shots. As always, please use your best judgment and don't do anything illegal.
There are a few different techniques you can use when zooming, which have very different effects on the outcome of your shot. For example, the slow zoom can change the entire perspective of your viewers in a gradual but powerful way. Zooming in on a subject will bring it into ever greater prominence and detail, drawing more attention to it and isolating it from the rest of the scene. Zooming out, on the other hand, slowly reveals the scene around your main focus and ties the two together.
The Two Zooms: Optical vs. Digital Zoom
Every videographer should be aware that there are two very different types of zooms: digital and optical. The digital zoom tends to be found on more inexpensive cameras, and won't really do you any favors when shooting. Digital zoom simply enlarges the image on camera which can cause blurring and degrade the quality of the picture. Just because your camera can zoom digitally, doesn't mean it should!
Optical zoom is far and away your best option when trying to maintain the best video quality possible.
"Optical zoom measures the actual increase in the focal length of the lens. Focal length is the distance between the center of the lens and the image sensor. By moving the lens farther from the image sensor inside the camera body, the zoom increases because a smaller portion of the scene strikes the image sensor, resulting in magnification." - source: About.com
In practical terms, optical zoom magnifies the subject before the video is shot, which results in a much higher quality than trying to alter an video after the fact.
Using Zoom Effectively
While using a zoom function can be very helpful, there are a few issues that may occur that you should know about. When using a zoom lens, especially at higher magnifications, be aware of the camera shake! Zooming in takes the minor hand twitches that would normally be insignificant when filming, and magnifies them to noticeable levels. Unless you're trying to specifically achieve that effect, it would be in your best interest to invest in a tripod. Another option is to use a lens with a built-in image stabilization feature.
There are two instances when using zoom can really enhance your video: when you can’t get close to your subject, or when you shouldn’t get close to your subject. Yes, that extreme close up of an alligator stalking its prey may add to your storyline - but we hold no responsibility if you deem it safe to approach all those sharp teeth with your fixed, wide-angle lens.
On the other hand, people tend to act differently when they know they’re being filmed – so if you’re going for a candid approach – use your zoom. This does not mean we’re endorsing your peeping tom fantasies – but if you’re trying to capture action at a large conference or event, your zoom lens will be your best friend.
If drama is what you crave, use a slow zoom in or out to give your audience a new perspective on the action. Zooming in will create a more – ahem – intimate environment, while zooming out will introduce the scene unfolding around your main talent.
Keep in mind that there are two types of zoom: digital and optical. Digital zoom is found on many of your inexpensive handheld cameras – and like your ex-girlfriend - it doesn’t do anything to enhance your image. In fact, it’s really just taking the image and enlarging it in camera – which could distort or blur the shot. Just because your camera can zoom, doesn’t mean it should. Optical zoom is absolutely essential if you want to maintain the best video quality.
When using a zoom lens to its fullest potential – look out for camera shake! Unless you want your audience to vomit from motion sickness, or the script calls for an earthquake scene: invest in a tripod! Using a lens with built-in image stabilization will also lessen camera shake when shooting that fiery explosion from a safe distance.
If you think using zoom effectively will broaden your video-making horizons: give us a thumbs-up or follow us for a closer look into the world of professional production.